Hypertension: mechanisms and causes

Increased blood pressure is an extremely common problem in Western society, so we look almost like normal “to have the voltage”From a certain age. It is never normal. The consequences for the system Cardio-vascular are so heavy that it is important to make the diagnosis and treatment, especially since many treatments exist.

Definition of high blood pressure (hypertension)

The importance of the problem in terms of public health is very early, major medical institutions have provided clear benchmarks.
The terms refer to pressure “diastolic” pressure and “systolic”. When the heart sends blood into the arterial system, the flow is maximum at the time of cardiac contraction, then falls until the next contraction. It defines two opposite values of blood pressure during these two phases, namely the systolic pressure (or “maximum”) is the highest, and diastolic pressure (or “minimum”) is the lowest.

We defined hypertension by a systolic pressure greater than or equal to 140 mmHg (14 cm) and / or diastolic pressure greater than or equal to 90 mm Hg. For WHO, these figures must be found to at least three different consultations with at least two measurements per visit for asserting standing hypertension. It may indeed have a transient hypertension. Only permanent hypertension require lifelong treatment. Depending on the risk Cardio-vascular, Hypertension has been classified into three stages: mild, moderate, severe.

Causes still unknown

In most cases, the cause of hypertension pressure is unknown. It speaks of hypertension “idiopathic”. We know that there is an almost equal division of responsibilities between heredity and environment (lifestyle).
Overall, the intra-arterial pressure and its variations, resulting from an interaction between blood volume and the ability of arteries to hold and advance this volume.

Within limits, the arteries are elastic and can expand at a higher blood volume by maintaining a constant pressure. Conversely, the same arteries can contract (the lining of arteries contains muscles) under the influence of neurological factors (nervous system friendly) or under the influence of substances secreted by the body as adrenaline. It is obvious that with age the arteries lose their elasticity. As for the phenomena of blood volume, they are focused on the activity of kidneys under the influence of substances such as aldosterone, remove less water and keep ions that retain water (as sodium ion).

Some known causes

Kidney Disease: renal, Narrowing of the renal artery, which triggers the secretion by the kidney of a hypertensive substance, renin.
Diseases of the adrenal glands: Cushing’s disease (excessive secretion of cortisol), Conn disease (excessive secretion of aldosterone), pheochromocytoma (excessive secretion of adrenaline and similar substances).
-The absorption of too much licorice, which contains a substance hypertensive.
-The narrowing of the aorta (coarctation) that creates a barrier and causes a pressure increase upstream.

Additional factors well known

If the root causes of hypertension are poorly understood, we now know well the factors that promote: the absorption in too large quantities of salt (which draws water into the arteries and increases the pressure), obesity , pregnancy, stress, alcohol, contraceptive pill. The cases of hypertension during pregnancy is somewhat special as it can be either the worsening of existing hypertension, either a “toxaemia”Disease peculiar to pregnancy and hypertension associated with proteinuria (protein in urine) and which may be complicated by eclampsia seizures (epilepsy), of fetal hypotrophy or fetal death.

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